Diy Wind Turbine Charge Controller

After trying miscellaneous MPPT and also PWM controllers for batteries, inverters, trial and error, and so on, I made a decision the best usage of the wind wind turbine was going to be as a hot water heater. Originally I’d tried a few aspects at miscellaneous resistances, but the (obvious) problems below bothered me a bit also much:

If the resistance is as well low, the wind wind turbine deserve to pump several wattage into the facet at high winds, yet it has actually trouble founding at low wind speeds.If the resistance is also high, it’s basic to get power in low winds, but windy days come to be a problem and you should throw the excess power somewright here as the voltage skyrockets.

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The solution: a low resistance element, thrust by an Arduino and MOSFETs.

First a snapshot of the finish result:

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Okay, so it’s not a looker. And it’s not MPPT (I’ll go right into why later). But it varies the fill based upon the voltage and works swimmingly.

I’ll begin through the purpose, move on to the “how”, and end with a pair tidbits of code in case you’re aiming to perform somepoint similar.

The Intent and also Purpose

As I alluded to earlier, a low fill functions excellent at low wind speeds and also a high load functions good at high wind speeds. After all, when the wind is a slight breeze, you want the wind turbine to spin and also generate something. A resistance that looks like a dump load isn’t so excellent. On the various other hand, once winds are so insane that you’d usually require a dump load, hey… at 100% duty cycle that heating aspect is a dump load!

More particularly I wanted the following:

At tiny wind speeds (up to about 5v unloaded), no load put on the wind turbine. Let it revolve.At low wind speeds (up to about 12v unloaded), area a light load on the wind turbine. As you can check out, it’s pulling under a watt in the photo (no real wind – I picked a great time to take a picture…). And certain, that’s pretty a lot nopoint. But I’d argue that 0.9w is still slightly much better than nopoint.At tool wind speeds, begin pulling even more. Say approximately 100w at 12v loaded.At greater wind speeds, directly affix the element (100% duty cycle).

I likewise wanted to be able to tweak these values conveniently with code. Maybe begin at 3v rather of 5v. Maybe go complete fill at 18v rather of 24v. Room to experiment and room to make transforms as soon as I swap the 7-blade wind wind turbine assembly in aacquire and want to pull a small even more power at the lower volteras.

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So placing together somepoint that could execute this was the goal.

The How

Okay, so a couple of critical components:

The Arduino Uno (Mega might be smarter if you desire to do something fancy)MOSFET(s) – I supplied the N-Channel HUF76137P (75A 30V) however find something that’ll handle your present and voltage and also is switchable with the Arduino’s meager power output.Resistors – for voltage dividers (in addition to existing limiting the MOSFETs and also various other menial tasks). You want the voltage dividers to take the max possible voltage the generator will ever before output and also bring it down to 5v so that the Arduino can manage it.Whatever heating facet you’re going to use. Low enough resistance and also high enough rating to handle whatever your wind turbine deserve to throw at it.

That’s really around it. Display (as seen) is nice, If doing something similar, I’ll assume you have actually a bridge rectifier, wires, thermostat (if utilizing one), and so on.

As for wiring, mine type of resembles this:

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Eco-friendly are the ground wires.Red are the positive wires.Brown are resistors – the ones going to thermostat are voltage dividers which go to the analog input on the Arduino. The ones going to the MOSFET (splitting to ground) are from the Arduino PWM pins – the resistors are to present limit the MOSFET and to let the MOSFET turn off fast by having actually a route from the gate to ground.Note that this is for an NPN transisitor (it feeds the ground). If you were to use a PNP transistor (feeding positive to the element) it would be wired differently.Keep in mind that the Arduino is powered separately, yet you’d need to tie into the ground from the rectifier additionally.

Consider this diagram an overview. It’s simply to offer you an principle regarding what the in its entirety image looks favor, but you’ll want to architecture somepoint roughly whatever you intend to execute. For instance, if doing somepoint similar, you’d desire to calculate your very own resistor values for both the divider and to the MOSFET to jive with whatever surge current limiting you desire.

The code logic I went through looks like this:

Read voltage (through voltage divider which must give max of 5v) and also multiply to gain original voltagePlug voltage into equation to acquire the desired power output in wattsCalculate the actual output power if direct-connected to the 1-ohm resistor (P=V^2 / R)(preferred watts) / (actual watts if direct connected) = duty cycle to useConvert duty cycle(0.0-1.0) to the (0-255) rangeApply that duty cycle

I used a bench power supply when iterating through the regimen to make certain every little thing functioned as supposed and output all the worths to the Serial Console as I made transforms. First made sure volteras were review properly, then code for the calculated and intfinished watts, then code for the duty cycle, and so on.