Written by: Suzanne Monir, Kimberly Tran, EIS Education Team Members, July 2016Title: Solar EclipsesGrade (Age) Level: High School (Ages 14-18), University

Pre-requisites: Knowledge of space at the grade 9 level is recommended.

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This course is to teach students about the solar eclipse phenomenon.

Parts of a Solar Eclipse


Penumbra- The Moon’s faint external shadow

Umbra- The Moon’s dark inner shadow

Corona- The gaseous envelope of the sun and also other stars. Thesun’s corona is just visible during a complete solar eclipse once it is viewed as anirfrequently shaped pearly on glow surrounded by the darkened disk of the moon

Difference in between Solar and also Lunar Eclipse

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Phases of the Moon


Themoon has eight phases, with the moon orbiting the Earth once eextremely 29 and ahalf days. Note, as soon as the illuminated part of the moon is acquiring bigger, theMoon is waxing. When it is acquiring smaller, the Moon is waning. The cycles are as follows:

New Moon: The illuminated side of moon is dealing with ameans from the Planet (nothingis seen)Waxing crescent: Less than fifty percent of the illuminated side of the Moon is facingthe Earth (ideal crescent visible)First quarter: Half of the illuminated side of the Moon is facing the Earth(appropriate half visible)Waxing gibbous: More than fifty percent of the illuminated side of the Moon is facingthe Planet (best side visible)Full moon: The illuminated part of the Moon deserve to be fully seenWaning gibbous: The illuminated component of the Moon begins to shrink, with morethan fifty percent encountering the Earth (left side visible)Last quarter: The illuminated component of the Moon shrinks, with half facing theEarth (left half visible)Waning crescent: The illuminated component of the Moon shrinks, with much less thanhalf dealing with the Planet (left crescent visible)From below the cycle retransforms to the brand-new moon.

Total solar eclipses" width="150" height="118" style="vertical-align:text-bottom; margin: 0 .5em;" class="img-responsive">

These are a happy accident of nature. The sun"s 864,000-mile diameter is fully 400 times better than that ofour puny moon, which steps simply about 2,160 miles. But the moon additionally happens to be about 400 times closer to Planet than the sunlight (the ratio varies as both orbits are elliptical), and also as an outcome, as soon as the orbital planes intersect and the ranges align favorably, the brand-new moon deserve to show up to entirely blot out the disk of the sunlight. On the average a complete eclipse occurs somewbelow on Earth about eextremely 18 months.

Tbelow are actually two forms of shadows: theumbrais that component of the shadow where all sunlight is blocked out. The umbra takes the form of a dark, slender cone. It is surrounded by thepenumbra, a lighter, funnel-shaped shadow from which sunlight is partly obscured.

During a complete solar eclipse, the moon casts its umbra upon Earth"s surface; that shadow can sweep a third of the means roughly the planet in simply a few hrs. Those who are fortunate sufficient to be positioned in the straight route of the umbra will watch the sun"s disk diminish right into a crescent as the moon"s dark shadow rushes towards them across the landscape.

During the brief duration of totality, as soon as the sun is entirely covered, the beautiful corona — the tenuous external setting of the sun — is revealed. Totality might last as long as 7 minutes 31 secs, though the majority of total eclipses are usually much shorter.

Partial solar eclipses
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A partial solar eclipse occurs once only the penumbra (the partial shadow) passes over you. In these instances, a component of the sun constantly stays in see throughout the eclipse. How a lot of the sunlight remains in check out relies on the particular situations.

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Generally the penumbra gives just a glancing blow to our earth over the polar regions; in such cases, areas much ameans from the poles but still within the zamong the penumbra could not see much even more than a small scallop of the sun hidden by the moon. In a different scenario, those that are positioned within a couple of thousand miles of the path of a total eclipse will see a partial eclipse.

The closer you are to the path of totality, the better the solar obscuration. If, for instance, you are positioned simply exterior of the path of the complete eclipse, you will certainly watch the sun wane to a narrow crescent, then thicken up aget as the shadow passes by.

Annular solar eclipses

An annular eclipse, though a rare and impressive sight, is far different from a full one. The skies will certainly darken but via what shows up as twilight additionally, since so much of the sun still mirrors. The annular eclipse is a subspecies of a partial eclipse, not complete. The maximum duration for an annular eclipse is 12 minutes 30 seconds.

However, an annular solar eclipse is comparable to a full eclipse in that the moon appears to pass centrally across the sun. The difference is, the moon istoo smallto cover the disk of the sunlight completely. Because the moon circles Earth in an elliptical orlittle bit, its distance from Earth have the right to vary from 221,457 miles to 252,712 miles. But the dark shadow cone of the moon’s umbra can extend out for no longer than 235,700 miles; that’s less than the average distance of the moon from the Planet.

So if the moon is at some greater distance, the reminder of the umbra does not reach Planet. Throughout such an eclipse, theantumbra, a theoretical extension of the umbra, reaches the ground, and also anyone situated within it deserve to look up previous either side of the umbra and also view an annulus, or “ring of fire” about the moon. A excellent analogy is putting a penny atop a nickel, the penny being the moon, the nickel being the sunlight.

Hybrid solar eclipses
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These are additionally dubbed annular-complete (“A-T”) eclipses. This distinct form of eclipse occurs when the moon’s distance is close to its limit for the umbra to reach Planet. In the majority of instances, an A-T eclipse starts as an annular eclipse bereason the reminder of the umbra falls just short of making call via Earth; then it becomes complete, bereason the roundness of the planet reaches up and also intercepts the shadow pointer near the middle of the course, then lastly it retransforms to annular toward the end of the route.

Since the moon appears to pass directly in front of the sunlight, total, annular and hybrid eclipses are also dubbed “central” eclipses to distinguish them from eclipses that are merely partial.

Of all solar eclipses, around 28 percent are total; 35 percent are partial; 32 percent annular; and also simply 5 percent are hybrids.

You must never check out a solar eclipse via undefended eyes. Staring straight at the Sun can result in retinal burn and also blindness. This is bereason the Sun is also bideal for the human eye to manage. Throughout a complete eclipse while the Sun is spanned by the Moon, it is still dangerous to watch undefended. As a complete solar eclipse provides the bordering area dark, the humale pupil dilates to enable more light in for a clearer image. However the Sun might come out and also "surprise" viewers prior to they deserve to turn ameans, making the resulting retinal burn even even more dangerous via the eyes trying to let in as much light as feasible.

To safely check out a solar eclipse, it is essential to protect your eyes. The following can be used to safely see a solar eclipse:* Note- According to NASA, the complying with products should never be used to check out a solar eclipse:

SunglassesCDs or Computer floppy discsMedical x-ray film via imeras on themColour film